Hagelin C-35 and C-36
"The C-35 and C-36 were cipher machines designed by Swedish cryptographer Boris Hagelin in the 1930s. These were the first of Hagelin's cipher machines to feature the pin-and-lug mechanism. A later machine in the same series, the M-209, was widely-used by the United States military.
In 1934, the French military approached Hagelin to design a printing, pocket-size cipher machine; Hagelin carved a piece of wood to outline the dimensions of a machine that would fit into a pocket. He adapted one of his previous inventions from three years earlier: an adding device designed for use in vending machines, and combined it with the pinwheel mechanism from an earlier cipher machine (the B-21). The French ordered 5,000 in 1935. Italy and the USA declined the machine, although both would later use the M-209/C-38. Completely mechanical, the C-35 machine measured 6 × 4.5 × 2 inches, and weighed less than 3 pounds.
A revised machine, the C-36, was similar to the C-35, but included moveable lugs and a protective case for the machine. Six C-36 machines were purchased by the Swedish Navy for testing in October 1937. Both machines had five pinwheels with 17, 19, 21, 23 and 25 pins, each individually settable, giving a maximum period of 3,900,225 for the machine.
One variant had a Thai alphabet on the pinwheels, rather than the usual Latin alphabet".
|All C35 photos in this table by John Alexander G7GCK. The case colour is blue.|
|This C-36 is on display at Bletchley Park. (Photo by Matt Crypto - Wikipedia)|
|C-36 lubrication points. (Image courtesy John Alexander G7GCK)|
|This is the French version of the manual for the C36. Tome 19 means Volume 19 in French. The manual also refers to the C36-M2. It is not known if the M2 suffix is of French origin or whether it was a Hagelin designation. (Image courtesy John Alexander G7GCK)|
Contributors and Credits:
1) John Alexander G7GCK <jalex_uk(at)ntlworld.com>
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