1.1 - MAIN AREA
LOCATION: After of the upper mess deck, port passageway.
YEAR OF INSTALLATION : 1943. Modified in 1950, 1957 and 1962. Restored in 1985. Enhancements to
the basic restoration continue as of Oct 1992.
CREW COMPLEMENT: 5 radio operators plus a watchkeeperStaffing could consist of the following ranks:PURPOSE OF THIS ROOM: It was the main receiving and transmitting office for the ship. It had LF (receive-only) , HF, VHF, UHF receive and transmit capabilities.
P1RM - Petty Officer 1st Class Radioman
Dayman P2 - (did not stand watches. He would be a Petty Officer 2nd class)
LSRM - Leading Seaman Radioman
ABRM - Able Seaman Radioman
Watchkeepers 3 OS - Ordinary Seamen
TELEPHONE CONNECTIONS: Telephone D23 connects with Radio 4, the OPS room and the bridge.
1957: Radio 1 as it appeared in 1957. It is very close to the 1962 configuration. Two notable differences are: 1) The RAK receiver was moved from atop the operators console and placed on its own shelf. It was used to guard the international distress frequency of 500 KHz. 2) The FR12 xmtr-rcvr was sitting atop a stand on the operator’s desk. Later, it was moved to its own shelf. Click on image to enlarge (HAIDA archives drawing)
|June 2007: Starboard side view of Radio 1 looking forward. (Photo by Jerry Proc)|
|June 2007: Port side view of Radio 1 looking aft. (Photo by Jerry Proc) Both of the above photos depict the radio room in its restored state on June 15, 1994|
|1962 Equipment Layout Diagram of Radio 1 - Top view.. The Desk was the Message Filing Area. (Graphic redrawn by Jim Brewer)|
|This pictorial illustrates the entire CW system aboard HAIDA. Not counting the FR12, three HF CW circuits could be flashed up if ever required. The two CW circuits in Radio 2 were remotely controlled from Radio 1. Click to enlarge. Select this link for a PDF version of the file. (Image drawn by Jerry Proc)|
|Stew Patterson (standing) and ABRM Colin Blackburn at one of Morse consoles around 1962. (Photo via Colin Blackburn)|
Although there were four operating positions in Radio 1, the normal complement was two positions. According to Al Goodwin, HAIDA's POTEL in the early 1960's, " I don't recall having all four positions filled. If we had a new radioman on copying the broadcast, I might have someone else double up with him until he got the drift of the job.
During a fleet exercise there were possibly three on watch. Once the ship departed port we would operating around the clock, usually in three watches. I had approximately six Leading Seamen and below , a PO2 and myself (PO1). I did not stand a watch".
1.1.1 - Aerial Exchange Board
This was a matrix board composed of a grouping of SO-239 RF connectors which permitted the interconnection of different receiving antennas to the various receivers located in Radio 1. There are four antennas connected to the coax connectors in the Y axis on the very left of the board. Each of these connectors has additional parallel connections in the X axis. At the bottom of the board, there are six connectors which attach to the various receivers. Antennas were attached to receivers using one foot long patch cords. The antennas connected to the Aerial Exchange Board were only used for receiving.
|Aerial Exchange Board Diagram|
Why were there two receiving whip antennas installed? The first reason would be redundancy - in case of damage. Secondarily, the radio operators discovered that by having two whip antennas to choose from, it gave them the ability to select the antenna which provided the best quality of reception.
Sometimes, it was case where one whip would simply receive a little better than the other so the better of the two would be selected. The overall antenna architecture aboard ship was to have all of the high frequency receiving antennas mounted forward and all transmitting antennas mounted aft in order to provide maximum separation. HAIDA's four whip antennas were painted white up to the first knuckle joint and black for the remainder. The original reasoning for this may be obscure but logic dictates that the lower part was white to conform to an overall colour scheme which dictated that masts, derricks, etc., would be white. The upper part was black because the antennas were exposed to funnel smoke and got very dirty. On a black surface, the dirt wasn't as conspicuous.
Flattop (wire) antennas were rigged to a pulley system that was used to raise and lower them. Very often when the ship was "dressed" the lines from the foremast carrying the lights or flags or pennants interfered with the flattops and so they had to be lowered out of the way.
|1.1.2 - AMC-6-2 Antenna Multicoupler
As the requirement for additional radio channels grew during the 1950's, it was important that each ship had separate receivers operating on many different frequencies. Space had to found for all of the their respective antennas so as to avoid mutual interference or interference from the ships radar. One solution to this problem was the installation of an antenna multicoupler.
Manufactured by TMC Limited (Ottawa) in 1953, this device is a broadband RF amplifier which allowed a common antenna to drive up to six different receivers in the range between 2 and 30 Mc. A switchable filter would provide 35 db attenuation against interference from signals below 1.5 Mc and each output port provides 10 db gain when the filter is switched in. The unit currently installed on HAIDA is not the original T164D type but it's authentic enough for display purposes. (Photo by Jerry Proc)
|1.1.3 - AN/URR35A Receiver
Receiver tuning was normally crystal controlled, however, a capacitor could be used in lieu of a crystal under emergency conditions. To tune the receiver under crystal control, the main tuning control was coarsely set to match the frequency of the crystal. The tuning control would be swept back and forth and left and locked in the position where the loudest background noise was heard. There were four variations in the URR35 receiver family:
URR35 and URR35A - Same except for minor changes in the value of two resistors.
URR35B - This variant was fitted with a new blower and a plug/jack connector in order to facilitate replacement. The value of the IF Gain control was increased to provide better control.
URR35C - In this version, the scanning circuit and the SCAN connector on the low pass filter were eliminated along with test cables included with previous equipment. A few resistor values were also changed. All parts were interchangeable with previous versions except for the low pass filter assembly at the rear of the unit. There is no evidence at this time to suggest that the RCN used the B or C variants.
AN/URR-504 was the designator applied to the receivers sold to the RCN and made by Cossor Canada.
These receivers were of robust design both mechanically and electrically.
They had a tube count of twenty two and weighed 57 pounds.
|1.1.4 - Channel Amplifier Unit - CAU
A bi-directional amplifier and control unit which amplified a remote audio source and fed this to the audio input of a transmitter. In addition, it would amplify audio output from a receiver and then feed it to a remote location on the ship. CAU's were always used in conjunction with Channel Switching Units and Remote Control Units. The model number of the CAU installed on HAIDA is AM-5143/URA-501V(A). These are solid state (integrated circuit) units which incorporate voice compression and were directly interchangeable with the vacuum tube versions that were originally fitted on HAIDA.
As originally designed, the CAU connects to a 32 post terminal board located behind the unit and HAIDA is fitted with this terminal board system. In later installations, the terminal board was replaced with a bulkhead mounted, Amphenol Series 26 connector. As the CAU was slid into it's operating position, the male connector on the CAU chassis would mate with the female connector mounted on the bulkhead plate. When the CAU was withdrawn on its runners for maintenance, a patching cord would be used to provide a connection between the CAU and the rest of the system.
There was one internal CAU setting which needed to be changed and was dependent upon the type of radio connecting to that CAU. Plug P511 is inserted into socket S511 when the CAU is used with a LF/HF gear. This action causes the audio input to be attenuated to the same level as that from a VHF/UHF receiver. This same plug is inserted into S512 when the CAU is used with VHF/UHF equipment. The audio to the transmitter was boosted by 10 db, while the audio from the receiver was amplified by 30 db. When CAU's were attached to CW or RATT transmitters, keying speeds were limited to 100 cps due to cable length. (Photo by Jerry Proc)
1.1.5 - Channel Switching Unit - CSU
Informally, the CSU was known as the "Bread Slicer" and was the heart of the Shipborne Radio Remote Control System. This device allows up to ten different Remote Control Units to be switched or shared between five different transmitter/receiver pairs. By moving a slide switch, any RCU could be connected to any available radio channel. Once a slide switch was set to a particular position, the RCU could only communicate with one transmitter/receiver pair. Download image to emlarge. (Photo by Jerry Proc)
|This is one of the CSU's in the swung down position. There are 10 complex wafers in each of the six CSUs . (Photo by John Paszkat)|
The number of RCU connections or radio channel connections to the CSU could be expanded through the use of an intermediate cable harness. If more than ten RCU connections are required, a vertical intermediate cable harness can be installed in order to daisy chain vertically adjacent CSU's. This would allow additional RCU's to be shared with five radio channels. Similarly, the installation of a horizontal intermediate harness could be used to increase the number of available radio channels.
Mounted across the top of the CSU's are green and red lamps. Each green/red pair provides channel status. RED means 'ready for transmission' while GREEN indicates that the channel is 'transmitting'.
Another component of the remote control system was the Receiver Switching Unit (RSU). This unit provided a means of switching any one of six receivers to any one of five radio channels. When fitted, there could only be one RSU for the whole system. RSU's were not used on HAIDA and are only mentioned here for the sake of completeness. The CSU/RCU/CAU remote control system was a Canadian development that worked very well and was admired by our contemporaries in the Royal Navy and the United States Navy. All of the radio remote control system was manufactured by Beaconing Optical and Precision Materials Company (BOP) in Granby, Quebec. (Photo by Jerry Proc)
There are a total of fourteen RCUs connected to the CSUs. RCU's 1, 2, and 3 are on the Bridge. Units 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 are in the Ops Room. No. 9 is in the Message Centre. Nos 10, 11, 12 and 13 are in Radio 1 and lastly, No. 14 is in Radio 4. The Bridge and Ops Room are fitted with four channel RCUs with the remainder being single channel units. Some of the RCU are hardwired together. The following labelling appears on the front of the CSUs:
9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14
178-1, 17-2, 17-3, 17-4
26-1, 26-2, 26-3, 26-4,
345-1, 35-2, 35-3, 35-4
Here is a decode for two of the designations.
Example #1 178-1 means Channel 1 of RCUs 1, 7 and 8 are hardwired together.
Example #2 345-1 means that Channel 1 of RCUs 3, 4, and 5 are hardwired together.
Using slide switches on the CSU, any radio channel of interest can be connected to single channel RCUs or the hardwired combinations on the four channel RCUs.
|1.1.6 - CM11 Transmitter/Receiver
First built in 1942, the CM11 was a transmitter/receiver that was capable of operation in the 375 kc to 13.5 Mc range. There were two distinct bands of operation: 375 to 515 kc on low frequency and 1.5 to 13.5 Mc on high frequency. In the high frequency band, the CM11 could be used with crystal or master oscillator frequency control. For low band operation, only the master oscillator could be used. The RCN labelled CM11 crystals with two additional frequencies besides the fundamental - the second harmonic and the third harmonic. The transmitter could be tuned to operate on any of the three frequencies. Modes and power levels were: CW - 100 watts; MCW - 70 watts; AM - 30 watts. The Signal Electric R63 was the key provided with the CM11 - RCN pattern number 3M/103.
Inter-connection between the transmitter, receiver and antenna tuner was provided by snatch plugs. These connectors operate on the same principle as knife switches. Each of the three slide out units in the CM11 are equipped with female snatch plugs. When slid into place, the antenna tuner, transmitter and receiver interconnect through a wiring bus that is fitted with male snatch plugs. When withdrawn for maintenance, patch cords had to be installed between the transmitter or receiver and the bus. The CM11 antenna tuner was a very versatile device, since it could match antennas that were 5 to 750 ohms resistive and supported operation in the range of 375 kc to 13.8 Mc.
The following standard RCN crystal frequencies were available for the CM11 transmitter.
Keith Kennedy ex-C2NET(s) of Surrey BC notes that "the CM11 was notorious for generating harmonics and spurious emissions and HMC Ships would routinely receive harmful interference reports from the Department of Transport monitoring station located at Wetawaskin Alberta. We had little in the way of test equipment and certainly nothing as fancy as a spectrum analyzer so we just followed the CM11 tuning instructions and filed the reports away. The CM11 was also known for its chirpy CW signal when controlled by the master oscillator but it behaved properly under crystal control. CM11's also had a bad habit becoming detuned as the ship rolled. It was the result of changing capacitance between the antenna and the surface of the sea".
Gerry Taylor was a former RCN radio operator. He recalls his experiences with the CM11 transmitter.
"My memory of the use of the CM-11 is pretty well limited to a only a couple of ships that I served in. I mainly used it for sending and receiving but I did have to know how to tune them up for the desired output mode and frequency. I preferred to use it mostly on CW 100 watt output. The transmitter that we used the most for Navy Traffic at sea was the PV500, which had a much higher wattage output.
The ship that I used the CM-11 on the most was HMCS Fort Erie, in 1962. On that ship, we were on a three month cruise up and down the West Coast of Africa, from Dakar Senegal to Lagos Nigeria. There were two ships on that Cruise - the Fort Erie and the New Waterford. We were supporting three Canadian Trade Fairs up and down the Coast. The ship was licensed for ham radio, and the call sign was VE0NR. Not a lot of military stuff going on during this cruise, and the CM-11 met the legal limits for ham radio operation. A few times we were able to connect with Ontario stations who made phone patches for us to family members.
As I recall, the quality of the CM11's phone mode was not that great. The reliability of the set seemed to be good. I can't remember having any technical issues occurring during use. I liked the tone of the CM-11 on CW output. On Modulated CW output, you got a totally different tone as I recall. They clunked and made a lot of noise. I cannot recall using anything other than the Master Oscillator on the CM-11. The Main Radio Room had about 3 or four work stations in a row. We would use one of the work station receivers to listen to the CW conversation..”
On HAIDA's bridge, a SM11 remote radio telephone control unit can still be seen. It was abandoned after the RCU/CSU/CAU radio remote control system was installed. All of the CM11's fitted on HAIDA were connected to the Shipborne Remote Control System and were keyed or controlled by the RCU's.
The power supply for the CM11 was very versatile, as it could operate
on 120/220 VAC or 24/36/220 VDC power sources. A fifteen second time delay
circuit prevented power from being applied to the transmitter in order
to protect the mercury vapour rectifiers. There was an emergency mode which
decreased the time delay to 4 seconds but at the expense of shorter mercury
rectifier life. Weighing in around 478 pounds, the CM11 just wasn't portable!
Eventually, the CM11 was superseded by the AN/URC32 transceiver. (Photo
by Jerry Proc)
|1.1.7 - CPRC-26 Transceiver
Designed by the Canadian Signals Research and Development Establishment and manufactured by Rogers Majestic starting in 1951, this was the first Canadian developed and built post World War II military radio.
The CPRC-26 was a self-contained, battery operated, transceiver (walkie talkie) which operated in the frequency range of 47.0 to 55.4 Mc. Its 300 milliwatt input is frequency modulated using a deviation of +/- 15 KHz. Six, crystal controlled channels were available for communication. Power was provided by a dry battery and a fresh unit would provide about 20 hours of service. Normally, the CPRC-26 would be used with a 47 inch collapsible whip antenna. It was a unique set for its time since it had replaceable modules.
All RCN ships carried three CPRC-26 transceivers which were usually kept in the main radio office. A communicator would carry one in a lifeboat and with landing or boarding parties. Other uses included short term communication between ships for such jobs as jack-stay transfers, underway fuelling and shoots. It was an excellent means of communication between the bridge and the emergency conning position during times of crisis. In total, there were around 4,500 of these units built for NATO forces by Philips and Canadian Rogers. By 1969, the RCN declared this gear as obsolete, dangerous or unreliable depending on the source of information.
|1.1.8 - CSR 5A Receiver
First built by Canadian Marconi in 1942, this general coverage receiver was capable of receiving AM and CW signals between 80 kc and 30 Mc with the exception of the broadcast band. It had a tube count of thirteen and weighed in at sixty eight pounds without power supply. CSR 5A's spent most of their working life receiving the Fleet Broadcast or guarding the International or marine distress frequencies. Each receiver was connected to its own wall mounted speaker, but headphones were the order of the day. Loudspeakers were used when one Radioman had to guard more than one frequency. This was known as a loudspeaker watch.
A modification was made to this receiver by the RCN. The "F" band (80 to 200 kc) was adjusted 10 kc low to enable the reception of the broadcast frequency of 73.6 kc. This frequency is still assigned to Maritime Command as of 1994. The RCN also labelled CSR- 5A crystals with two additional frequencies besides the fundamental - the second harmonic and the third harmonic. The receiver could be tuned to operate on the fundamental or the other two frequencies. One of the noted quirks of the CSR 5A was the habit of going off frequency in rough weather when continuous tuning was used. If a large wave hit the ship, it would overcome the friction of the tuning gear assembly and knock the dial off frequency. There were no such things as frequency synthesizers or phase locked loops in those days. The vernier control would be used to retune the frequency.
In the CSR 5A, the band-switch assembly has been wired into a sub-chassis which can be detached from the main chassis. This operation should be never be attempted by the inexperienced. First, you extract the receiver from its case and detach the bottom cover plates - do not be concerned over the 30 screws that secure the plates. Next, desolder 29 connections as outlined in the manual. Following that, there are another 20 screws to remove in order to physically detach the RF turret. Do not go insane in the process, or you won't be able to get the pieces back together. This brief glimpse of 1942 radio maintenance has been presented for those readers who have complaints about 1990's manufacturing methodology. (Photo by Jerry Proc)
Much rarer, is the Marconi CSR5Y, a variant adapted for diversity reception. Rather than having a toggle switch for the AVC, a three position rotary switch is used. It is marked DIV, OFF and INT. The Send/Rcv switch is eliminated since the receiver is intended to be in receive mode all the time. There is also a terminal strip on the rear of the chassis marked AVC. The AVC was probably derived from an external comparator when in Diversity mode. In all other respects, the Y variant is identical to its more common cousin. The CSR5Y would mostly likely be found in a shore installation. (Photo courtesy Meir Ben-Dror, WF2U)
In July of 1992, there was only one functioning CSR 5A receiver in Radio 1. During the winter of 1992/1993, four of the receivers were repaired, refinished in the original colour of 50 years ago and refitted with shock absorber assemblies. One receiver in particular, had ten faults which required correction.
The VP3 power supply for the CSR 5A was designed to operate from 120/220 volt 50/60 Hz AC power or 12 VDC. When operating on DC power, some changes had to be made. Marconi designed two power interlocks to ensure that no damage could be caused by inadvertent operation on the wrong power source. To switch from AC to DC operation, a five pin interlock plug had to be moved from one socket to another. Subsequently, the AC line cord had to be disconnected from the wall socket and inserted into a special chassis mounted receptacle. VP3 power supplies also acquired a reputation for fusing the contacts on the vibrator and frying the primary winding on the power transformer. By 1969, the CSR 5A was considered obsolete and was taken out of service.
In July of 1992, there was only one VP3 supply among four CSR 5A receivers. Another VP3 was found in storage but was completely deteriorated and had to be rebuilt from bare metal. Since three other VP3 power supplies were missing, near replicas were constructed in order to restore operation to the receivers.
The following standard RCN crystal
frequencies were available for the CSR5 receiver.
|1.1.10 - RCK Receiver - AN/URR21
Weighing in at 117 lbs, the RCK was a 'low radiation' VHF receiver built by E.H. Scott Radio Laboratories during the 1940's. Copious use of RF shielding helped contribute to its hefty weight. The RCK had four crystal controlled channels and operated in conjunction with the TDQ transmitter in the 110 to 160 Mc radio band. Also, there were nine sockets for storing additional crystals.
One unusual feature of the design was the tuning system. Normally, when a receiver is under crystal control, the main tuning dial must be set to the same frequency as the crystal. This is accomplished by sweeping the dial back and forth across the operating frequency until the loudest background noise is produced. In the RCK, there was a mechanical tuning mechanism that could be preset so the main tuning dial hits a 'detent' position at the exact frequency of operation. When this happened, a red channel indicator light came on to show the channel number being received. If any of the crystals were changed, and you wanted the use of the 'lamp on frequency' feature, then a mechanical tuning assembly would have to be re-adjusted with an internally mounted Allen key.
The RCK manual of 1944, lists a number of standard VHF frequencies for
which crystals were available.
116.10 117.90 119.34 121.50 123.66 124.02 124.38 126.18 128.70 140.58 140.76 140.94 141.12 142.02 142.56 142.74 143.28 143.64 144.00 144.36 146.16 147.96 149.49 151.20
The following standard RCN crystal frequencies were available for the RCK receiver.
(Photo by Jerry Proc)
|1.1.9 - FR12-TH Transmitter/Receiver
Made by Canadian Marconi in the early 1940's the FR12 was a three mode
transceiver - CW, MCW and radio telephone. Power input was 15 watts on
CW, less on MCW and even less on phone. It was capable of transmitting
on low wave (375 to 580 kc) or short wave (1700 to 4200 kc) depending on
the model type. On low wave, the set had a range of about 20 miles. On
receive, it was capable of continuous tuning from 300 to 4200 kc. The letter
H in the model number indicates that the remote control option was installed,
however, it was not compatible with HAIDA's Radio Remote Control System
and was not used.
The following standard RCN crystal frequencies
were available for the FR12 transmitter/receiver.(High frequency)
Under normal use, the FR12 would be used to communicate with merchant ships or the Naval Administrative Net. Pictures taken in the 1950's show the handset installed, so it was definitely used on voice. Emergency communications could be provided by this unit if all else failed since it only operated from a 12 volt DC power source. The receiver section consisted of a five tube superheterodyne design with the ability to continuously tune the range of 300 to 4200 kc in three bands. To simplify the overall design, there was no direct frequency readout for the receiver. Instead, a circular logging scale dial was provided. It was necessary to calibrate the dial, and record the readings in advance.
In the transmitter section, there was an oscillator, a modulator and a dual power output stage. One of four, selectable, internally mounted crystals determined the operating frequency. In order to activate the modulator, one simply inserted the handset plug into the front panel socket. The microphone in the handset provided the interlock for the modulator. If this was done while the Dynamotor was running, a noticeable slow down of the Dynamotor could be heard.
Power for the FR12 could be provided by one of two modes. In standby mode, the filament circuit for the transmitting tubes gets disabled. Filament power for the receiver would be provided from the main battery. The 180 volt B+ line for the receiver would be furnished from four, external, 45 volt dry batteries wired in series. Standby mode would dramatically increase the life of the main battery. In normal mode, all power for the receiver and transmitter was provided by the main battery. An internal Dynamotor produced high tension for the transmitter but it had to be inspected after every 500 hours of operation. Input power to the FR12 was 12 volts DC at 6 amps on receive and 13 amps on transmit when used in normal mode. On HAIDA, the antenna for the FR12 was a sloping, twenty seven foot vertical wire designated as the PORT OUTER VERTICAL.
Al Goodwin of Dartmouth N.S. did some range experiments with the FR12. "It was sent away in a sea boat on a couple of occasions. In those days, we didn't have commercial mobile antennas available to us, so we rigged up a 35 foot whip antenna. The exercise was not deemed a success as we lost communications around five miles. On HAIDA, we used this set for both AM and CW communications. For CW operation, we would have to attach a key with a very long lead. In an unusual case, the late Keith Lake (VE1PX) used the FR12 to modulate the Marconi PV500 thus giving it AM capability for use on the amateur bands. He put out quite a strong signal compared to the 30 watts of the Marconi CM11". (Photo by Jerry Proc)
|1.1.11 - Remote Control Unit (RCU)
This was a device that allowed a radio channel to be controlled from a remote location on the ship. RCU's come in single channel and four channel versions, with and without weatherproof covers. A single channel unit only had the capability of controlling one radio channel, while the four channel unit could switch between, and control, up to four radio channels. An RCU supported both voice and CW operation and provided the functions of an intercom.
Every system has limitations, so the Radiomen had to observe some operating precautions. In normal operation, the manufacturer suggested that a maximum for four RCU's be connected to any given radio channel. Intercom functions were limited to those RCU's connected to the same radio channel. It was also possible to connect more than one RCU to a radio channel. Despite these minor restrictions, the system worked very well. (Photo by Jerry Proc)
|This RCU to CSU interconnect diagram shows the locations of the RCUs. Select this link for a PDF version of the file. (Drawn by Jerry Proc)|
|1.1.12 - TDQ Transmitter
First built for the U.S. Navy in May of 1943, this unit was capable of voice or MCW transmissions in the 115 to 156 Mc band running 45 watts continuous power. Any one of four selectable crystals determined the frequency of operation. The following standard RCN crystal frequencies were available for the TDQ transmitter.
Before the days of UHF equipment, destroyers were fitted with a pair of TDQ/RCK sets. These were used for operations circuits such as "Plot Primary". When the RCN followed the United States Navy to UHF voice, the TDQ/RCK was left behind as the only VHF set capable of monitoring and communicating with aircraft, other ships, yachts and harbour facilities. The basic role for this set became that of 'guard' for the VHF distress frequency of 121.5 MHz. The TDQ could be remotely operated through the shipborne radio remote control system. Weighing in at 285 pounds, it was extremely heavy by today's standards. (Photo by Jerry Proc)
|VHF System Diagram. Select this link for a PDF version of this drawing. (Drawn by Jerry Proc)|
|1.1.13 - TED3 (AN/URT-502) Transmitter
The TED3 was a low power UHF transmitter capable of AM or MCW operation in the 225 to 400 Mc band. TED transmitters were designated as AN/URT-502A by the RCN and were built by Westinghouse in Hamilton Ontario and the RCA Victor Company, Montreal. Nevada Air Products and RCA Victor produced URT502B's. Each TED3 in Radio 1 was connected to a separate, weatherproof, UHF dipole antenna located on the lower yardarm of the foremast. The designated model number for the antenna is AT-150/SRC. TED3's were introduced into service in 1952.
A TED3 was always used in conjunction with a Channel Amplifier Unit and a URR35 receiver. This combination of equipment provided a "UHF communications channel". Radio 1 provided three out of the seven UHF communication channels aboard HAIDA, while Radio 3 provided the other four. Surprisingly, TED's were routinely used in MCW mode on the intership Task Group Common circuit.
TED's had small, axial crystals which fit into a four position crystal holder located behind a hinged door. Radiomen had to carry out frequency shifting drills which consisted of quickly changing the whole set and it could become very frustrating if a crystal was dropped. It would invariably disappear under an equipment rack and would never roll back out!
The following standard RCN crystal frequencies were available for the TED3 (AN/URT-502) transmitter. Frequencies marked with an asteriskare for use by the CNEL. (Canadian Navy Electrical Laboratories)
1.1.14 - Frequency Measuring Equipment
|BC221 photo courtesy RCN.|
The BC221-M Frequency Meter was designed to provide a means of accurately calibrating transmitting and receiving equipment within the frequency range of 125 kc to 20 Mc where no crystal was available for a radio channel. This meter is a portable heterodyne type with a built in crystal calibrator. A unique calibration book was prepared for each unit and it could not be interchanged with other BC221 meters. Power was provided by a dual voltage dry battery.
Eventually the BC221-M was superseded by the AN/URM 32 Frequency Meter. This unit was used to calibrate transmitters in the frequency range of 125 kHz to 1000 MHz when crystals were not available. Unlike the older BC221, the URM 32 could be powered from 120 VAC or batteries. In addition to its use as a frequency meter, this unit also had the capabilities of a signal generator.
|Dave Blais, RCN radioman at the time, adjusts the URM-32 frequency meter aboard HMCS Restigouche in 1959. (RCN photo from the collection of Dave Blais)|
Click on photo to enlarge
|Forward view in March 1961: LSSG Harold Stratton has a chokehold on Ronald Yaschuk (foreground). At the left of the photo is the the bulkhead partition which was extended in 1962 to enclose the Message Center. It must have been very noisy back then with the Teletype machines chattering away and without sound isolation. (Photo submitted by Ronald Yaschuk e-mail: ronlynn(at)rogers.com)|
|A starboard/forward view in 1960: This entire area was reconfigured when the navy fitted crypto equipment aboard the fleet in 1962. The rack at the back was the radioteletype (RATT) bay and looks very similar to the way it does today. The big black box on the starboard bulkhead was the LF receiver used to copy the broadcast to submarines. (Photo by Ronald Yaschuk)|
|A starboard/aft view in 1960: ABRM Ron Stebner. He passed away in 1971 at age 27. (Photo by Ronald Yaschuk)|
|A starboard/aft view in 1960: ABRM Ron Stebner and LSSG Harold Stratton in a lighter moment. There were additional modifications made to this corner after 1960. The Marconi FR12 transmitter receiver (barely visible) was moved to its own shelf, affixed to the starboard bulkhead and a storage area was fitted to the top-rear of the desk. Note the stateboad affixed to the power panel. (Photo by Ronald Yaschuk)|
|Aft view in March, 1961: ABRM Ron Stebner poses next to the Marconi CM11. The section of the room remained unchanged until HAIDA paid off. (Photo by Ronald Yaschuk)|
Radio 1 is fitted with one AID speaker and fitted to it's right is a boom mounted, AID microphone. The 1962 drawing does not show a microphone fitted, so this one remains a mystery.
Al Goodwin of Dartmouth N.S., served aboard HAIDA as the POTEL (senior radio operator) from May of 1960 until she was paid off in October of 1963. Al recollects some memories from this period. "I operated the amateur radio station from early 1962 when I first received my ticket until we paid her off. At one time, we had five operators working the bands and that was probably a record number for one ship. For a receiver, I removed the Hammarlund SP600 in Radio 4 and used it with either a Marconi CM11 or PV500 transmitter. A VE0 call was very rare in those days and one CQ brought back a 'pileup'. One thing still sticks out from this period. The CO thought that operating an amateur station was really neat. He used to bring his guests into Radio 1 and show them the QSL cards that were displayed on the aft side of the message centre bulkhead. One day, he noticed a QSL card from Russia and asked - 'What would you talk to him about?' I replied 'Crypto codes - of course', a remark that I passed during the height of the Cold War".
AC power to the radio room was notoriously unstable and the cyclic output of the alternators was even worse. This prevented the use of electric clocks whose synchronous motors depended on precise regulation of the frequency of the input power. Although marginally better, Seth Thomas mechanical clocks were used, but they too were somewhat erratic. These clocks had to be set to time stations WWV or WWVH daily.
With reference to radio room clocks marked with the red silent periods for 500 kHz distress ( as above), some ships did have clocks with the markings while others did not. Some also included the black silent periods for 2182 kHz AM distress on the hour and half hour. These markings were not universal and in some cases the clocks had no silent period markings at all. Fred Ware , a WWII era Telegraphist could not recall a single ship that he served in where the radio room was fitted with a clock with the silent periods.
|This is a typical example of saship's radio room clock before
1947. In that year, 2182 KHz was added to become the International
voce distress frequency, so "green" three minute silent periods were
added at the hour and half hour intervals. Wedges could also be found
in red/green, red/blue (Scandinavia) and red/pink (USSR) colours.
(Photo via E-bay).
Those red bars are 4 seconds long and are separated by spaces of 1 second in length to assist the radio operator in sending an automatic alarm signal by using a hand key if the automatic key failed to work.
|This radio room clock (?/) sports a Roman numeral face. There are two red lines to denote the 500 KHz silent periods. It is not known if these are original or if they were added by some radio operator. Sestral of England built this clock for HMS Chatham and one of the distributors was "R.F. BOVEY -VANCOUVER B.C." (Photo and copy via E-bay)|
|This plain-face clock was used in other parts of HAIDA. It was an original clock , installed into HAIDA on-build in 1943. Download image to enlarge. (Photo by Jerry Proc)|
These were the specifications for a ship's radio room clock as dictated by Maritime law.
80.828 Radiotelegraph Station Clock.
A working clock equipped with a sweep seconds hand and having a dial not less than 12.7 cm (5 inches) in diameter, the face of which is marked to indicate the silence periods prescribed for the radiotelegraph service by the International Radio Regulations, must be provided. It must be securely mounted in the radiotelegraph operating room in such a position that the entire dial can be clearly observed by the radio officer from the normal radiotelegraph operating position, from the operating position where the international radiotelegraph alarm signal would ordinarily be transmitted by hand, and from the position used for testing the auto alarm (if installed). If a separate emergency radiotelegraph operating room is provided, the requirements of this section apply to it also.
[51 FR 31213, Sept. 2, 1986, as amended at 58 FR 44953, Aug. 25, 1993]
|If anyone wishes to create their own radio room
clock, this PDF file might be suitable. The face is 4.5 inches in diameter.
Click on the graphic to launch the file.The drawing can be scaled with
software such as Inkscape for any size. The pdf file contains vector
art not bitmap art which means that the clock face can be scaled for any
size from a watch face to an outdoor clock face.
For 500 KHz., silent periods were always a quarter and a quarter after the hour for a 3 minute duration. For 2181 KHz, it for 3 minutes past the hour and half hour. The silent periods can be marked in different colours depending on the manufacturer of the clock. (Drawn By David Ring Jr. N1EA)
Mounted on the aft bulkhead, starboard side of Radio 1, is the DC power distribution panel for the equipment in the room which was capable of operation from a DC power source in case of emergency. Emergency power was provided by a large battery bank positioned in the starboard passageway aft of the bulkhead in Radio 1. This battery could be re-charged by the ship's electrical system.
Adjacent to the DC panel, is the wood and glass encased AC distribution panel. AC power for the equipment in Radio 1 was supplied from here. HAIDA was originally fitted with a 225 VDC electrical system. Power was supplied by two 200 kilowatt generators that were steam driven and two diesel driven 60 kilowatt units. As more and more American equipment was fitted in the ship, it became necessary to produce 120 VAC 60 Hertz power. Lead case cable was used in Canadian ship construction post-war as evidenced in the four Canadian-built Tribals. Probably the first use of armoured cable was in the 3"50 gun system (including gun drives, Mk63 GFCS and AN/SPG34 radar) installed in Tribals around 1950
|The glass and wood panel at the right is the AC distribution panel for Radio 1 and Radio 3. . It gets an AC feed from the lower left side. Power is then then distributed to the various branch circuits in Radio 1 and Radio 3. Near the left top are two pilot lights which indicate that the panel is live, however, only one of the lights is visible in this view. (Photo by Jerry Proc)|
|This is the low voltage DC distribution panel It distributes emergency 12 VDC power to whatever Radio 1 equipment had the capability to operate from a low voltage DC source. The batteries that fed this panel were located inside an enclosure which was affixed to the deck on the the opposite side of the bulkhead. (Photo by Jerry Proc)|
Pat Barnhouse of Ottawa Ontario took the effort to document his experiences as HAIDA'S Electrical officer. "Sometime during my tenure as the Electrical Officer of HMCS HAIDA between December 1959 and June 1960, the messdeck lighting was changed from DC-supplied incandescent bulbs to AC-supplied fluorescent lights. I believe this was done in just the four main messdecks - forward and after, upper and lower although it could have been extended to some of the others. This was not an authorized alteration for the Tribals, rather it was a unique, unauthorized fit in HAIDA only.
Impetus for this change came from two factors : a fleet-wide paint removal/cleanup campaign and a shortage of jetty DC shore power. The paint removal initiative came from the CANCOMFLT of the time, Commodore Plomer, who wanted the layers of paint removed from the interior of older ships for two reasons - reduction of a considerable amount of unneccesary weight that affected ships' performance and improvement in the interior appearance and cleanliness of the ships. The shortage of shore power was sorely felt on most occasions by HAIDA since being the junior ship in the squadron (a function of the Captain's seniority vis-a-vis the other Captains in the squadron), she always occupied the outboard position in the 'trot'. Jetties in Halifax were short of DC shore power and it was first come, first served. This meant, that almost all times alongside in Halifax, HAIDA had to run the diesel generator (which implied the services of a Stoker as watchkeeper) to provide sufficient power for domestics.
All the Halifax jetties had been supplied with ample AC power to support the St. Laurent and follow-on classes that were just coming into service. HAIDA, along with the other Tribals, had two large AC machines on board. These AC generators, usually driven by DC primary power, supplied power mainly for the 3inch50 gun and associated fire control system. Fortuitously, the Tribals were also supplied with an AC shore connection, no doubt to allow testing of the systems while alongside.
Since I had been put in charge, of the paint removal and freshup of the ship's interior, I had involved the electrical department in the endeavour. It was my Chief Electrician who suggested that we kill two birds with one stone by rewiring the messdecks for AC lighting, thereby making them even brighter since the DC incandescent bulbs didn't give a very good light at the best of times using readily available shore power. I gave the Chief permission to get on with it which he did by acquiring all the required bits and pieces (including light fixtures and a considerable amount of cabtire wiring) from naval stores and subsequently carrying out the complete installation.
I did get caught in this unauthorized refit. Commodore Plomer came aboard to evaluate progress in his paint cleanup. The Captain proudly showed him our paint work and pointed out how "his" new fluorescent lights added to the attractiveness. Accompanying the Commodore was his Electrical Staff Officer, Commander Bev Miles who inquired of me, the refit number. I mumbled something about it being a "HAIDA special". He did not seem satisfied, but said nothing further. From that day, I never heard another thing about it!"
The crystal cabinet, mounted above the TDQ transmitter, was used to store all of the crystals that would be required to fulfil any Communications Plan. Keith Kennedy of Surrey B.C recollects details about the cabinet. "Physically, the cabinet was of wood or aluminum construction, and was as wide as the TDQ transmitter and two thirds of its height. When the ship was in harbour, the front doors were secured with a bar and combination lock. Internally, there were six to eight slide out plywood shelves or trays with numerous felt lined pockets approximately two inches square. Each pocket contained two crystals - one for service and one was a backup. The transmitter and receiver crystals were kept on separate shelves to prevent them from getting mixed up. For the most part, the cabinet was used to store crystals for TED/URR type equipment, but some CM11 transmitter and CSR5 receiver crystals were also stored here ".
|The crystal cabinet aboard HAIDA is missing. Radioman Keith Kennrdy provides this sketch of how it looked physically and the approximate dimensions. The section of the bulkhead where the cabinet was mounted has not discloured at the same rate as the remainder of the bulkhead. The lack of discoloration thus provides for the actual width and height dimensions of the cabinet. If a replica cabinet were to be built, the dimensions of the non faded area would need to be followed. Click on image to enlarge.|
Two types of straight keys were used for CW transmission. One was the Speed-x square, chrome based type. The other was the tear- drop shaped, black wrinkle finish base variety. Keys were mounted on a clear plastic plate which straddled a rectangular hole located in a bay, at the right side of the operating desk. Electrical connections were made to the KEY input of the Remote Control Units next to the CSR 5A receivers. In HAIDA's case, it's suspected that the keys were hardwired into the RCU.
|This key is the Speed-X Model 320-001 made by the E.F. Johnson Company and was used by the RCN during the 1950's and 1960's. The example in the photo was made in 1967 and the RCN part number was 114-320. (Photo courtesy of Morse Express )|
|This is the box end for the above key. (Image courtesy Spud Roscoe)|
Headphones that were in general use in the 1950' had bakelite earpieces cushioned by soft rubber coated pads. The two spring bands connecting the two earpieces was covered with stitched, tan coloured leather Each headphone assembly bore two markings: MX- 41/AR and ANB-H-1. It is not known who manufactured these two specific models. By the 1962, the RCN switched over to headphones made by the TRIMM company. These did not have earpiece cushions.
|These Headphones, made by TRIMM, were in use
by the RCN in 1962 and would have been used specifically aboard HMCS HAIDA.
by: Wayne Blenkhorn VE1BAB. Photo by Jerry Proc)
Spud Roscoe adds: "We did not wear the TRIMM headphones over the ears. Rather, they were placed on the head just slightly forward of the ears and because we were also copying fast Russian operators, we kept the audio gain up so one and all could hear it. Some had it so loud you could hear it a mile away"
|Headphone markings: TRIMM Commercial Libertyville Ill. (Photo by Jerry Proc)|
Metal Desks and Chairs
Metal desks that were used for the operating consoles were supplied by Eaton's of Canada but it is not known whether they could be purchased by the general public. The original colour is a metallic flake green finish as evidenced by looking underneath some of the sliding typewriter trays. Over the years, the desks have been repainted in the routine colour of navy grey. On HAIDA, all of the slide out drawers in the desks are missing the locking latches. These would be essential to have in a rough sea.
Gregory McLean of Abbotsford B.C. recalls, with great detail, the furnishings and the some of the routines in Radio 1. "The chairs used in some radio rooms of the 1950's were swivelling arm chairs. They were of robust construction, with padded backs and tubular sides. The bases of these chairs were bolted to the deck and a pivoting steel shaft was affixed to the underside of the seat. This shaft was fitted into the base, thus giving the chair firm support and allowing the operator to swivel 360 degrees. This type of seating arrangement persisted in some ships and is still in use today.
To a great extent, it was felt that the swivel chair was superior to the 'chair and chain' technique which was used on HAIDA at the time of her de-commissioning. The tubular sides and the anchored base gave firm support in rough seas and was easy to use. On the chained chairs, the chair did not move once the chain was secured making it difficult to get ones legs out from under the desk.
Decks on ships were scrubbed every day, but special house cleaning was done for Captain's rounds. Radio 1 "scrub out" was in the middle or morning watch when the radio traffic volume was least. At that time, the swivel chairs were pulled from their bases and set to one side. The 'broadcast' chair was left to last in case traffic resumed".
When seamen were not on radio watch, spare hours were filled with maintenance, book amendments, cleaning stations and working part ship (painting, scraping etc).
The typewriters used at the operating consoles were Royal or Remington Telegraphic typewriters which could only print capital letters and some special symbols. Two keys away, and to the right of the letter L was a "dead" key which would print a line and then, without the carriage moving, the operator could type an accented or Tiddley" (special) letter.
They were of the closed frame variety and painted in wrinkle finish grey. The typewriter itself, was bolted to a sliding tray which was located in the middle bay of the desk. Radiomen often referred to the typewriters as "mills". In those days, the Royal or Remington typewriters looked sleek and modern.
|Cpl B.A. Kelly of St. John's Nfld., operates a CW position at Canadian Force Station Mill Cove N.S. in 1970. The typewriter in the photo was typical of those used to copy CW in that period. (Photo courtesy Maritime Command Trident, Nov. 1970)|
Often, an operator would spend long hours in continuous copy. In order to make life more comfortable, he would pull the pins that restrained the typewriter tray and move the tray out and slightly down. Everything worked fine until a large wave hit the ship and in turn, it would cause the typewriter to jump forward and unto the operators lap, often with undesirable results. The unfortunate operator might be talking with a slightly high pitched voice for a while. The paper supply for the typewriters consisted of rolls which were mounted on a separate assembly within the centre bay of the desk. Each roll of paper had metal caps inserted into the cardboard core. Metal caps were saved as some of the paper rolls issued by the navy did not come supplied with these. A thin steel rod was passed through holes punched in the metal caps. The rod was then placed into slots on an angle iron bolted inside the middle bay. This assembly allowed the paper to unroll easily and kept the roll stable as the ship moved about in the sea. The paper holder assembly was not part of the original desk and was added as the need arose.
Generally speaking, one or two ply paper rolls were used for CW copy but usually one. Teletype circuits, particularly broadcast, used two or three ply but usually two. When supplies of one ply paper ran short, a three ply roll would be rewound into individual two and one ply rolls. These techniques were used because storage space on board was always at a premium. Having 'stores' carry multipurpose items was most desirable. Teletype ribbons were rewound onto typewriter spools because the ribbons supplied for teletypes lasted much longer than the typewriter ribbons that the navy purchased.
Three copy paper was used when the ship was the designated guard ship in the group and copying the broadcast. The main problem with custom wound rolls was the tendency for the paper to loose alignment. During a busy watch, the operator had to align the sheets frequently. It was both the fault of the platen pressure and the type of paper being used. This problem became very critical when receiving a long message and the machine could not be stopped to fix the paper. Needless to say, using more than two ply paper was not popular.
Fanfold paper with perforations was tried at one point, but the paper was difficult to set at the perf line. One message might be three lines long while the following message might be three pages long. Some Radiomen were accustomed to tear-off rolls and would tear off the sheet at the point where the message ended. Trying to line up the perforations before the next message started proved somewhat difficult.
Spud Roscoe offers this comment on typewriter installations. "A typewriter in a ship had to be mounted so that the carriage ran fore and aft. A typewriter with the carriage athwartships was more or less useless. When the ship rolled you had to hold on to the carriage and move it with each letter. When the typewriter was mounted so its carriage was fore and aft, it rarely needed assistance unless the ship was really pitching badly".
Ronald Yaschuk describes a typewriter trick used in his era. "We attached a heavy duty rubber band (of which we had plenty) to the carriage return handle and the other end was fastened to the side of the typewriter bay. This tensioned the platen to the left and offset the force of gravity when the ship pitched. It served the purpose adequately".
In an effort to improve typing efficiency, the RCN evaluated telegraphic typewriters whose keyboard layout resembled that of a teletype machine. HMC Ships St. Croix and Swansea were among those who were chosen to receive the initial batch of evaluation units. It was the intent of Canavhed (Canadian Naval HQ) to standardize the "typing skill" of the Communication Trades into one keyboard - basically that of the Teletype keyboard.
It was also intended to introduce a type of electro-mechanical typewriter, which would eventually supersede the existing telegraphic typewriters in copying or transcribing morse. As typewriters became unserviceable, they would be replaced with the improved models. However, there was no intention to use the new typewriters in the Communications School because the presence of an on-site Queen's Printer typewriter repair shop made it virtually impossible for a typewriter to require replacement. Training would continue on the current type but, when new typewriters were encountered, it would be up to the operator to make the keyboard conversion on his own time. The new keyboard was to look like this:
Line 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0
Line 2 Q W E R T Y U I O P NR
Line 3 A S D F G H J K L GR
Line 4 (Upper) " : ; x ? , . /- (a dashed slash)
Line 4 (Lower) Z X C V B N M / BT
NR = Station serial number
GR = Group
BT = Long pause
Dashed slash = ?
Sea trials indicated that some of the new typewriters were not standing up. It is assumed that this initiative to develop a common keyboard was ultimately abandoned.
|This telegraphic typewriter used by US Navy illustrates the upper case only keyboard with the slashed zero character. (E-bay photo)|
Ron Yaschuk describes the rudimentary radio state board used in Radio 1 in 1960. "The stateboard was affixed to the front of the AC power panel with metal clips. Templates were drawn up on white cardboard sheets which were then sandwiched between two pieces of plexiglass. This enabled the operators to keep track of the connections between Remote Control Units and the radio circuits. An example of the makings would be:
Pri Tac - 273.6 MHZ - CAU# - OPS Room
Hbr Com - 283.4 MHZ - CAU# - Bridge etc., etc.
Each time a change in frequency was made or a Channel Amplifier Unit changed position or designation, the stateboard would be wiped with paper towel and the new designation, frequency and remarks would be updated with grease pencil".
|This is an example of a typical radio stateboard. The board has been marked up to be as authentic as possible to an early 1960's radio environment. All of HAIDA's sister Tribal's are shown. The actual stateboard in HAIDA was affixed to the main fuse panel in Radio 1 (Photo by Jerry Proc)|
|This was the actual radio state board used in HAIDA's Radio 1. It was attached to the AC distribution panel.|
Shielding and Woodwork
Under the panelling, Radio 1 is encased with sheet copper which becomes visible around the door moulding for the Coding Office door. The purpose of the copper shield is to minimize radio interference that is produced from different parts of the ship and to ensure that radio frequency interference generated within Radio 1 does not affect sensitive equipment in other parts of the ship.
The air duct which spans the entire length of Radio 1 is comprised of 1/4 inch plywood only. There is no metal beneath. Besides being aesthetically pleasing, it is believed that the duct was fabricated from wood to help reduce the noise level of the airflow.
|Sound Powered Telephones
Installed throughout the ship are numerous sound powered telephones. Unlike a regular telephone which needs 48 VDC to operate, these telephones convert the energy of sound waves into electrical energy which powers the sets.
The actual efficiency of a sound powered link is about 25 db lower than that of a regular carbon microphone system. This limits the sound powered equipment to point-to-point applications and limited party line applications where the line loss does not exceed 15 db. Because of the resonant characteristics of the microphone and receiver units, the frequency response of the telephone falls off sharply for frequencies above 2000 Hz.
There are two types of telephones installed on HAIDA. One type is the single line set and the other type is a selectable, six line unit. To originate a call on a single line set, the user turns the crank on the phone. This sends a ring voltage down the line which powers a buzzer and illuminates a neon lamp on the remote unit. The remote user than picks up the handset and communication can be established with the use of push-to-talk switches. Phones can be wired as party lines, so rotating the crank on one phone makes all of the other phones ring. By using ringing codes, only a certain phone will get answered. On a party line, the recipient of a call listens for the correct ringing code then selects the proper line with a rotary switch. The telephone system uses three wire, armoured cable for communication. White is common, black is voice, and red is ring.
The photo illustrates a sound powered telephone in a badly deteriorated state. After 6 to 8 hours labour, the phones were restored back to their 1960's condition. (Photo by Jerry Proc)
|HAIDA's original telephones were manufactured by the Telephone Mfg. Company in London England.These telephones stowed the handset by using a metal strap over a hook. This is an example of a single line phone. (Photo by Jerry Proc)||At some later date , the navy modernized the telephones by the addition of a handset stowage assembly It was made my Measurement Engineering part number 5905-040-4281., Not all of the telphones were modernized as evidenced above.. (Photo by Jerry Proc)|
|All damage contols phones in HAIDA were painted red. All of them would terminate in the Damage Contol office, Photo by Jerry Proc)|
Besides being used for the transmission of voice traffic, the voice pipe in Radio 1 was also used to move paper messages between the bridge and radio room. Messages were placed in a small canister known as the 'bucket'. This was raised and lowered from the bridge using a string known as Coston Gunline. When there was a message destined for the bridge, the Radioman signalled the bridge by pressing a switch next to the voice pipe. The party on the bridge would then haul up the message. On occasion, the string would break and the bucket became a 'bullet' which would then provide the 'sender' with a great surprise. Very strange items were known to travel through those voice pipes.
1) Morse Express http://www.morsex.com/ccorner
2) Spud Roscoe <spudroscoe(at)eastlink.ca>
3) Dave Blais <brodger0131(at)rogers.com>
4) Colin Blackburn <acblack(at)shaw.ca>
5) David J.J. Ring, Jr. N1EA. Former radio officer <email@example.com>]
6) Wayne Blenkhorn VE1BAB <wayne(a)blenkhorn.ca
7) D.J.J. Ring, Jr. firstname.lastname@example.org