|This is the face of #3 boiler showing the ports for the 8 fuel sprayers. HAIDA has three boilers in total. (Photo by Jerry Proc)|
Both saturated (a.k.a. wet) and superheated (a.k.a. dry) steam for HAIDA's engine room was produced by three, Admiralty Type 3, drum boilers runng at 300 psi.. A superheater is a device which heats the saturated steam produced by the boiler and removes any water vapour. Superheating increases the thermal energy of the steam and decreases the likehood that it will condense inside the turbine. That's why dry steam was used in all the ship's turbines otherwise, wet steam would severely damage the turbine blades.
Saturated steam was fed to both the superheaters and the auxiliary machinery in the engine room plus the rest of the ship. It is important to note that auxiliary equipment is broken down into two types - turbine driven and reciprocating. Besides the main turbines, any auxiliary equipment which was powered with turbines of any size used superheated steam. Equipment which used reciprocating steam engines used saturated steam.
Examples of auxiliary equipment are the electrical generators, water evaporators, pumps, ship's heating, anchor winches, fuel oil heaters etc.. Evaporators converted sea water into fresh water. This water was stored in both domestic water tanks and boiler feed tanks. The main water tank is located in HAIDA's engine room with the reserve feed tank being situated in the boiler room. As the water level in the main tanks depletes, the evaporators make up the difference. At sea, the evaporators were almost in continuous operation replenishing the water in the feed tank. Domestic water tanks are located throughout the ship, below the main decks but not in any of the engineering spaces.
When in port and and when it was available, the engine room crew hooked up the ship to shore generated, saturated steam and also topped off the main water and fuel tanks. Having shore steam and water in a port of call was a Stokers dream since it meant the engine room branch could relax from their normal duties and "bank" the main boilers. The term "bank" means that a boiler is not at full steam pressure but is only operating at a level which produced around 50 psi of steam - that was enough to for a quick boiler start up (flash-up) if needed while in port. HAIDA also has an auxiliary saturated steam boiler which would supplement steam produced by the ship's main boilers. The steam output of the auxiliary boiler was not fed to the superheaters.
To maintain a draft for the boilers, all three rooms were pressurized with induction air supplied by a very large fan. Access could only be provided through an air lock when HAIDA was steaming. The boiler room is sometimes perceived to be a very hot area. In reality, it's the exact opposite. Due to the great volume of air drawn in by the induction fan, the boiler room is exactly the same temperature as outside air. On the Murmansk run, many a Stoker would seek out his favourite spot next to the boiler in order to keep warm. HAIDA'S #3 Boiler Room is accessible to the public.
One favourite pastime of Stokers was to steal potatoes and butter from the galley during silent hours then bake them on the boiler drums. What a taste that was on the middle watch!
On the face of the boiler, there were eight fuel sprayers which were called sprayer cartridges. The amount of steam produced was determined by shutting off or turning on more sprayer cartridges and by increasing the air flow to the boilers. Maximum steam, thus maximum speed, could be produced by bringing all three boilers on-line. HAIDA's boilers consumed Bunker C oil.. The water level control to the boilers is automatic. It is controlled by a float like in a toilet. When the boiler level drops the float opens and lets in more water.
|Engine room thottles and gauge panel. (Photo by Jerry Proc)|
HAIDA was fitted with two Parsons steam turbines, each producing 22,000 shaft horsepower. Depicted in the photo, is the key position in the engine room. Upon receiving orders originating from the bridge, the throttles (the large wheels) were rotated counter-clockwise to increase the 'ahead' speed of the ship. The smaller wheel controlled the 'astern' (reverse) speed. A mechanical interlock prevented both throttles from being used simultaneously. Mounted at right angles to the ahead and astern throttles were the throttles which admitted steam to the 'cruise' section of the Parsons turbine. The use of cruise turbines improved fuel economy, however it limited the maximum speed to around 18 knots. Additional details about HAIDA's propulsion machinery can be found here.
This the forward end of the Parsons steam turbine, capable of producing 22,000 horsepower. HAIDA was fitted with two of these engines. (Photo by Jerry Proc)
Situated aft of the engines is the Gearing Room. Since marine propellors work most efficiently at low speeds and steam turbines work best at high speed, it was necessary to provision a reduction gear box between the engine and propellors. The Gearing Room also houses one of HAIDA's two 100 kilowatt auxiliary diesel generators. This power plant was restored by Margaret Mathers one of HAIDA's senior volunteers in October of 1997. The Gearing Room is not restored at this time.
This is a port side view of one of the two gear boxes. The Parsons steam turbine was designed with a high pressure and low pressure section, hence the front of the gearbox accepted power from both shafts. This can be seen in the top and right hand side of the photo. The output of the gear box (lower left corner) connected to the propellor shaft. Each gear box was approximately the size of a medium sized automobile and provided reduction ratios of 8:1 for the high pressure turbine and 6.5:1 for the low pressure turbine. (Photo by Jerry Proc)
This bird's eye view shows the connection from the output side of the gear box to the propellor shaft. Whenever the ship was not steaming but exposed to moving water, an external drum brake would be clamped around the propellor shaft to prevent it from turning. This technique would prevent excessive wear to machinery in the absence of an active lubrication feed. The large spanner hanging next to the shaft was used to tighten the brake. Two examples of brake use were: if the ship being towed by a tug; if the ship was tied up in a harbour which had a vigorous tidal basin. (Photo by Jerry Proc)
The ship's rudder was moved by electro-hydraulic steering gear in a compartment called Tiller Flats. This area was restored in 2000. (Photo by Jerry Proc)
This is the jetty display for HAIDA's propellors. (Photo by Jerry Proc)